The art, practice and science of Feldenkrais®
Director: Robert J. Burgess BEd, PT, PhD, Feldenkrais Practitioner

Electrical MicroStimulation of the Motor Cortex
A brief history and study of the motor cortex

These videos introduce the Motor Cortex in four section according to the major discoveries from the 18th, 19th, 20th ad 21st Centuries. Galvani, Volta, Fritsch, Hitzig, Ferrier, Penfield and Graziano all made significant contributions to the understanding of the motor cortex. Each of these pioneers applied some form of electrical stimulation to the motor cortex to reveal something of its function.

Electrical Microstimulation of the Motor Cortex remains the gold standard in determining its functioning. In other videos we will explore the theories for Motor Control which must include and define the findings of microstimulation of the motor cortex as well as the observed motor behavior and learning.

Muscles versus Movements: this has been a debate for 130 years since Hughlings Jackson proclaimed in 1889 that the motor cortex is concerned with movements not muscles. This video series follows a journey for this debate from the Frog to the Dog to the Monkey and on to the Human Motor Cortex.

Motor control is an important subject in Physical Therapy and the Feldenkrais Method, two methodologies that affect human functioning. Some background in how the brain works will allow for a better understanding of human functioning and how to affect it.

This a work in progress. In the future, more EPH, Optimal Motor Control Theory, Core Stabilization motor control theory, Active Inference and the Feldenkrais Method and motor control.

1. Motor Cortex: 18th-19th Century- Early beginnings (6:37 minutes)

2. Motor Cortex: 20th Century- Muscles Reign (5:08 minutes)

3. Motor Cortex: 21st Century- a Re-Awakening (5:35 minutes)

4.1 Motor Cortex: Graziano's Monkeys again- Biceps and Triceps activation in the Motor Cortex. Part1. Some heavy science-skip to next video for interpretation if too much. (5:43 minutes).

4.2 Motor Cortex: Graziano's Monkeys again- Biceps and Triceps activation in the Motor Cortex. Part 2. Interpretation + ongoing research/debate and motor cortex output. (10:30 minutes).

5. Motor Cortex: Introducing the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis for Motor Control. (12:02) minutes)

6. Motor Cortex: Passive Dynamics- Legs as Struts and as Springs. Vertically aligned trunk and legs are more efficient than splayed legs. Computational Motor programs versus Reflex mechanisms for motor control. (10:34) minutes)

7. Motor Cortex: Back pain and motor control. Too much control?
In Production......(0:00) minutes)